Wine is a drink that results from the alcoholic fermentation of fresh and ripe grapes or fresh grape juice. A biochemical definition of wine could be a drink made by the alcoholic fermentation of sugars extracted from grapes by yeast. It has long been a part of, in some way, the past of humanity, either due to the fact that it has distinct flavor and character or due to its benefits to health. The most important ancient civilizations, like the Egyptians and the Greeks, along with the Romans as well as the Hindus, utilized wine as a treatment for the body and the treatment of the soul. The evidence from the past shows that drinking wine was a tradition that has been practiced for more than 2,000 years. 11.
In general, we can think of the benefits of wine as the prevention of heart and circulatory ailments; drinking with a meal, it is the most beneficial to people with diabetes; useful in the fight against weight gain; improves longevity and better quality of life as it blocks the onset of dementia; drinking wine with meals will result in more efficient digestion, anti-infective effects as well as positive results on female health. They are beneficial for the skin, can help reduce blindness, possess anti-inflammatory properties, can ease lung ailments, and are an extremely pleasant drink 22.
It is among the oldest drinks, is always associated with the human race’s history, and has many benefits for the human body’s health 33. While there are reports of drinking wine for over 7700 years, the advantages of drinking wine only came into focus in 1992, after it was the year that the French Paradox was published [ 44. What draws attention to scientists is the eating practices of the French who, even though they have excessive levels of sedentary life smoking, smoking, high consumption of saturated fats, and higher levels of cholesterol, when compared to other industrialized nations, are less prone to the occurrence of coronary-related illnesses and heart disease, which is believed to be due to the large consumption of wine 55. The data presented by The World Health Organization (WHO) reveal that the rates of death from cardiovascular disease in France are lower than in other countries. This is the reason why” the French Paradox has appeared [ 6[ 6 ].
In this regard, you can link the consumption of wine with benefits that are associated with healthy eating and overall quality of life, but only when wine is consumed in a specified quantity 77.
In this regard, this research aims to conduct an overview of the most important studies and research conducted on the subject of wine and health. The study will pay particular attention to the positive effects of the phenolic content of red wines. It will consequently contribute to the spread of the advantages of regular consumption of wine and the health of humans.
Materials and methods
The study is built on a literature review as well as research results from various research institutions working in this field.
In order to develop the project, scientific papers were collected, with reference to the international and national publications related to the subject “Wine and Health” and “Wine: functional food,” “Resveratrol,” which were reviewed through periodicals that were indexable within the Scielo portal and the collection of data in government institutions, like UVIBRA (Brazilian Union of Viticulture).
Each piece of work was cataloged, and the data was arranged in a manner in which it became possible to expand the work.
Discussion and results
The use of wine for medicinal purposes was extensively utilized throughout the Greeks. Hippocrates (460-370 BC) reported the healing qualities of wine, a drink consumed as a food supplement for diuretics, cachexia, and purgative conditions, as well as antipyretic and antibiotic, and in plasters and against depression in convalescence 88. The primary components of wine salts include the minerals anions, sulfate pho, sulfate, chloride, and sulfite. They also contain organic compounds like tartrate, malate, and lactate, along with some cations, such as Na + Mg2 + + Fe2 + Al2 +, Cu2 + 99. Iron and calcium salts are utilized in medicine to treat anemia and descaling 1010.
The abundance of the components makes wine an authentic liquid food with unrivaled virtues. The primary requirement for wine to provide health benefits is to be taken in moderation and when combined with meals. This allows absorption of the nutrients contained in food 11[ 11.
The results of studies conducted around the world show that drinking moderate amounts can benefit the overall health of the human body 1212. Resveratrol could be one of the components of the wine that confers this benefit 1313. Resveratrol is a key ingredient as a preventative measure against heart diseases as a result of drinking red wines, and it also inhibits platelet aggregation and alteration of the synthesis of eicosanoids and modulates the metabolism of lipoproteins and lipids 1414.
Resveratrol is the most plentiful source. It can be found in the Vitis vinifera grapes, V. labrusca, and V. muscadine, which are used for the production of wine. Resveratrol can be found in vines as well as in seeds, roots, and stalks. However, the highest concentration is located in the grapes’ film, which contains 50 to 100 aeg/g 77. The resveratrol concentrations found in various types of wine vary in relation to the disease Botrytis cinerea, the grape cultivar, geographic source, variety of wine, and oenological methods 1515.
Its antioxidant power is linked with the protection against cardiovascular disease. The antioxidant properties of the drug are related to the prevention of cardiovascular disease 16Anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties 17[ 17. Resveratrol is able to block the development, progression, and growth of cancers , decrease cell death due to oxidative stress, the ambition of oxidation in LDL, which is a low-density protein (LDL) [20 21 as well as inhibition of platelet aggregates, reduction of anti-inflammatory activity  and lessening the effects of neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s [23and Alzheimer’s .
The amount of resveratrol in the blood is a reaction of the plant to an aggressor and is affected by the existence of microorganisms that cause disease 2424. The effects of wine on the cardiovascular system are attributed to the resveratrol. It protects against injury to the reperfusion system following Ischemia (R/I), which has been proven in the kidney, heart, and brain. Resveratrol is a powerful antioxidant that can trap oxygen-free radicals and boost the production of nitric oxide.
In Brazilian wines, Vanderlinde et al. Vanderlinde et al. 25 have found higher levels of resveratrol compared with Argentine, Chilean, and Uruguayan wines. The grapes that are grown in dry and hot climates less affected by fungi contain lower levels of resveratrol. In humid and cold temperatures, they are higher in concentrations 1414. Rosier et al. Rosier et al. 26] measured the resveratrol levels in white and red wines. They also measured the resveratrol content in Brazilian, Argentine, and Chilean wines. The wines had an average value of 2.33 mg, 1.33 mg L for red wines, 0.091 mg for whites, and 0.091 mg L in white wines; as for the types with the highest levels, the most were found in Merlot, which averaged 3,580 mg 1, and the greatest level was observed in the Brazilian red wine, which had 8,247 mg 1.
The phenolic compounds found in the products made of grapes are Vitis vinifera. Wine and grape juice, particularly red wine, are antioxidants that help fight free radicals. Research studies aimed at assessing the antioxidant capacity and determining the phenolic compounds have shown that red wines have higher levels of phenolic substances and higher antioxidant activity. For Europeans, wine is seen as a food supplement because it is a source of nutrients, vitamins, and carbohydrates that are derived from grapes. Along with water (80 to 85percent percent of volume), The drink gives the body energy through sugars like fructose and glucose. Minerals comprise copper, potassium zinc, fluorine aluminum, magnesium, as well as iodine, boron, and silicon that, even in tiny amounts, is vital for the body to carry out effectively all of its tasks 2727.
As with all alcohol-based drinks, wine can cause problems when consumed over the limit. In 100 milliliters (half one cup), there is between 8 and 10 grams of alcohol. Thus, people who consume large quantities of alcohol (more than half of a 1 liter), regardless of quality, will suffer the undesirable effects of alcoholic intoxication the next day. Along with other negative effects, like dehydration of the body and alcohol absorption, it enters the circulatory chain, which causes vasodilation in the peripheral arteries, which causes headaches. There is no set rule to determine what an individual’s limit is with regard to alcohol. It will vary based on a variety of elements, including age, sex, and mental state, as well as the fact that everyone has a different level of tolerance to alcohol. That is, each body reacts differently to alcohol 28[ 28.
Numerous studies demonstrate the benefits of regular consumption of moderate amounts of red wines to the health of humans, mostly due to its phenolic component. Since the beginning of time, wine has been associated with the evolution of medicine. The consumption of red wine is accepted as being beneficial to health by the medical profession.
The components in red wine are regarded as powerful antioxidants. They have been proven to possess anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties.