What’s in wine? A clinician’s perspective,

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Alcoholic drinks spe, specifically wine, have been consumed for many years. The role of wine in improving cardiovascular risk factors is a topic that has been discussed for many years. In most epidemiological studies, sustained consumption of wine at low-to-moderate levels has been shown to increase HDL cholesterol and reduce platelet aggregation. It also promotes fibrinolysis. In most studies, wine consumption is inversely related to ischemic cardiovascular disease. The alcohol-blood-pressure association follows a J shape. Scientists have attributed these results to the molecular components of wine, specifically ethanol and polyphenols. We review the chemistry behind wine, its composition, viticulture, enological practices, and other factors that affect the bioactive components of wine. We also describe the biological effects and future directions of wine components.

The following is a brief introduction to the topic:

Wine is an incredibly unique beverage. Wine production predates recorded history and occurs on nearly every continent. It is both an art form and a scientific discipline [1],[2],[3]. Many oenological variables influence the quality of wine, such as grape type, grape structure, climate factors, and fermentation methods [4],[5],[6]. Wine is a complex mixture of molecules that includes several different classes of compounds suspended in a liquid at various concentrations. After epidemiological studies found a negative relationship between moderate to light consumption of wine and mortality from ischemic heart diseases (IHD), wine has been hailed as a health beverage. There was contradictory evidence despite many epidemiological studies that were conducted across cultures and multicenters. Some studies reported similar effects when drinking beer or spirits. Others found that drink type did not matter, suggesting alcohol, in general, was protective. Numerous studies have investigated the cardioprotective properties of the diverse range of chemical components found in wine. Studies in-vivo or population-based postulate that ethanol and polyphenols are responsible for the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of wine.The chemistry of wine and grapes has helped us better understand the biological properties of wine over the years. Analytical techniques in chemistry have enabled a detailed characterization of the wine composition [14],[15]. The power of RRenaud’sand de LLorgeril’sfindings about the French paradox has also prompted many studies into the antioxidant properties of wine [16].Wine chemistry is an advanced branch of research that encompasses the science of grape growing, winemaking, and the physical, organic, and analytical analysis of wine. Wine chemistry helps to understand the composition, taste, and aroma of wine. This review provides a historical overview of the origins of wine, production and consumption habits, its compositional analyses, and the biological activities of its constituents in the cardiovascular system. We discuss the impact of alcohol and wine on global disease burden and the directions that future research should take.


Section snippets

The origins of wine and viniculture

Wine is simply the fermented grape juice. While other fruits, grains, and honey have also been used to produce alcoholic drinks, grapes are complex and diverse drinks that have a variety of flavors. Since ancient times, wine has been consumed. Origins are fascinating myths that the ancient Romans, Greeks, and Egyptians have told. It is estimated that the earliest evidence for oenology or winemaking from grapevines dates back between

Global wine production

Intercontinental wine trade has affected its production and consumption patterns. According to OIV (International Organization of Vine and Wine) [27], a group of intergovernmental organizations that deals with vine and wine products and grapes, in 2016, 7.5 million acres of land were covered by vineyards. This led to an annual production of 75.6 million tonnes of fruit. About half of the grapes were used to make wine. Global wine production in 2016 was 267 million.

Global disease burden due to alcohol

Over-consumption of wine or alcohol is considered a risk factor for many diseases and deaths. Alcohol consumption was responsible for more than 1.8 million deaths and 52 million years of disability-adjusted living worldwide [28]. More than 200 International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10 codes) are associated with alcohol, including non-communicable diseases, infectious diseases, and acute adverse injury [28],[29],[30]. The disease burden is associated with wine and alcohol.

Wine Terminology

Enology refers to the study of winemaking and the science of growing grapes, while Viticulture describes the research or the science of grape-growing [36]. Ethanol, a chemical compound found in wine as a by-product of yeast fermenting [37], is formed. Fermentation refers to the chemical process by which grape sugars (CO2) are converted into ethanol, turning grape juice into wine [38]. Carbonic Maceration refers to a fermentation method whereby whole grapes ferment in an environment rich in CO2 before being pressed.

What is wine? What is wine?

The word wine comes from the Latin vinum, which means “in” (or “in”. The fermentation of grape juice must produce wine, which is an alcoholic drink. The grape sugars are converted to ethanol by yeast, which produces CO2. Winemaking and storage result in chemical additions that affect the taste, aroma, antioxidants, and cytoprotective properties.

Wine classification

In a broad sense, wines are classified into four main categories: still, sparkling, fortified, and de-alcoholized. The wines can be further subdivided by ethanol, CO2, and sugar content. They can also be classified based on color, grape variety, or place of origin. Classification by color indicates wine intensity. The most common classification is by geographical origin. [38], [46].

Fortified wines range between

Composition of wine

The composition of wine is determined by the grape constituents and products formed from fermentation. It also includes compounds that are produced during storage and maturation. More than 500 compounds have been identified as being present in wine. Most of these compounds range in concentrations from 10 1 up to 10 6mg/L [5],[52]. Although they may not be sufficient to play an individual role in the taste profile, collectively, this could still be significant [53]. The taste, smell, and texture of wine are largely due.

Wine composition: External influences

The soil, topography, temperature, and sunlight are all external influences on the wine’s quality and composition. It has been shown that a high nitrogen content in the soil suppresses the production of anthocyanins but increases the production of amino acids. The pH of grapes can be affected by high potassium levels in the soil [81]. Water accumulation in soil

Wine phenolics for cardiovascular health

The phenol ring in wine phenolics has been shown to reduce LDL oxidation, which is attributed to its effect on scavenging free radicals. It also promotes fibrinolysis and prevents endothelial malfunction through increased NO bioavailability [1, [83].

The frequency and patterns of consumption is an important consideration.

Excessive consumption of alcohol or wine is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes as well as mortality from all causes. Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption has been shown to have protective effects on IHD and overall mortality. Similar findings were reported for spirits and beer [119],[120]. These observations are subject to methodological variations. Rehm et al. This issue is discussed in depth by [121].

Future directions

Alcohol misuse is a common problem, but there are still many misconceptions about the risks and benefits, as well as recommendations for appropriate consumption. [123],[124] Physicians know what to tell their patients about diet, smoking, and exercise. But is the same true for wine and alcohol use? Publicly misunderstood alcohol consumption guidelines, with wide variations between countries


The ethanol and polyphenolic compounds of wine, despite the contradictory arguments about the cardioprotective properties of wine and other alcoholic beverages, have shown desirable biological activity in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Each chemical compound in wine contributes to its overall matrix, which influences flavor, perception, and taste. AAlcohol’sdetriment is increasing as the global burden of disease attributable to alcohol increases and guidelines change.

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