Wine and health: A review of its benefits to human health

Wine is a drink derived from the alcoholic fermentation of fresh and fresh grapes or grape juice. A biochemical definition of wine is a drink derived from the alcoholic fermentation of sugars from grape juice by yeast. It has long been a part of the history of humanity in ways, either because it has its distinctive flavor and character or for the advantages it offers to health. The most important ancient civilizations, such as the Egyptians and the Greeks, the Romans, in addition to the Hindus, utilized wine as an ailment for the body and to nourish the spirit. Records from history show that the therapeutic drinking of wine has been practiced since 2000. 11.

In general, there are the benefits of wine as prevention of circulatory and heart ailments; if drinking with a meal, it is the best for people with diabetes; beneficial for fighting obesity, it improves longevity and better quality of life as it blocks the development of dementia. Drinking wine with meals can result in more efficient digestion, anti-infective effects, and positive results on female health. They are great for the skin; may reduce blindness; possess anti-inflammatory effects; may ease lung conditions; it is a delightful drink 22.

Wine, one of the oldest drinks, is always associated with the evolution of man and has many benefits for the human body’s health 33. While there are reports of drinking wine for over seven thousand years, the health benefits of wine were only recognized in 1992 after The French Paradox was published [ 44. The reason for the scientific interest is due to the dietary habits of the French who, even though they have excessive levels of sedentary life smoking, smoking cigarettes, a high intake of saturated fats as well as elevated cholesterol levels in comparison to other industrialized nations are less prone to the occurrence of coronary-related illnesses which is attributed to the consumption of a lot of wine 55. The data from the World Health Organization (WHO) researchers indicate that mortality rates associated with cardiovascular illnesses in France are less than in other countries. This is the reason why” the French Paradox has appeared [ 66.

In this case, you can link wine consumption with benefits associated with a healthy diet and a high quality of life. However, this is only true when consumed in a specific amount 77.

In this regard, this research aims to provide an overview of the most critical analysis and studies conducted on wine and health, focusing on the positive effects of the phenolic content of red wines. It will consequently contribute to the spread of the advantages of regular consumption of wine and the health and well-being of the human body.

Materials and methods

The study is built on a literature review and research findings from the organizations involved.

To develop the project, scientific papers were collected concerning international and national publications on the topic “Wine and Health,” and “Wine: functional food,” “Resveratrol,” which were read through periodicals indexing within the Scielo portal and data collection at government institutions, like UVIBRA (Brazilian Union for Viticulture).

Each piece of work was cataloged, and the data was arranged in a manner in which it became possible to expand the work.

Discussion and results

The therapeutic use of wine was extensively utilized throughout the Greeks. Hippocrates (460-370 BC) reported on the curative qualities of wine, a drink used as a supplement to diet in diuretics, cachexia antiseptic, purgative, and plasters. It also served to combat depression during convalescence 88. The principal components of wine salts are minerals, anions, sulfate chloride, phosphate, and sulfite. They also contain organic compounds like tartrate malate, lactate, tartrate, and a few Cations like K+, Na + Mg2+, Ca2 + Fe2 + Al2 +, and Cu2 + 99. Iron and calcium salts are employed in medical practice to treat descaling and anemia 10[ 10 ].

The number of elements that make wine a liquid food with unparalleled virtues. The main requirement for wine to provide health benefits is taken in moderation and when combined with meals. It is essential to absorb the nutrients contained in food 11[ 11.

The results of studies conducted worldwide show that drinking moderate quantities can improve the overall health of our bodies 1212. It is believed that resveratrol is one of the elements in the wine that provides this protective effect 1313. Resveratrol is a key ingredient as a preventative measure against heart diseases due to drinking red wines, as well as reducing platelet aggregation and alteration in the synthesis of eicosanoids and regulating the metabolism of lipoproteins and lipids 1414.

The most abundant resveratrol sources include the Vitis vinifera grapes V. labrusca, and V. Muscadine, which are used to make wine. Resveratrol is present in grapes roots, seeds, and stalks. However, the highest concentration is found in the film of grapes, which has 50 to 100 aeg/g 77. The levels of resveratrol in various varieties of wine differ about the disease Botrytis cinerea, the grape cultivar, geographic source, type of wine, and oenological methods 1515.

Its antioxidant power is linked with the protection against cardiovascular disease. Its antioxidant capacity is related to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases 16 as well as anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties 17[ 17. Resveratrol can block the development, progression, and growth of tumors [18], reducing cell death due to oxidative stress, biting of oxidation in LDL, which is a low-density protein (LDL) [20 21 inhibition of platelet aggregation, and inhibiting anti-inflammatory activities [22] and lessening the effects of neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s [23and Alzheimer’s [23, 24].

Resveratrol’s concentration in the blood is an adolescent plant reaction against an aggressor agent and is affected by microorganisms that cause disease 2424. The effects of wine on the cardiovascular system are believed to be due to resveratrol. It protects against injury from reperfusion after Ischemia (R/I) which is documented in the kidney, heart, and brain. Resveratrol is a powerful antioxidant that can capture oxygen free radicals and boost nitric oxide production.

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