Red wine is a favorite in the world and has numerous benefits because of the presence and amount of its constituents. The art of making wine and consumption of wine has been known for decades. The early Romans were aware of the benefits of drinking wine and promoted it 11. The primary product from vineyards and grapes is wine. It is made up of carbohydrates, water, mineral compounds, organic acids, polyphenols, alcohol, and aromatics 22. Wine is a source of substances that can have a profound effect on cardiovascular disease and certain chronic diseases 33.
Antioxidants are essential for maintaining healthy cardiovascular function. They are present in a variety of plants, like fruits (and their products derived from them, i.e., juices, jams, wine, and more.), as well as vegetables. Their inclusion in beverages and food decreases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and diabetes 3, 44. Consuming red wine has been found to reduce the blood pressure of patients with hypertension 5]. 55.
The most recognizable types of wine compounds are polyphenols. The composition of polyphenols and their precise content depend on a variety of factors, including how the wine is made. White wines typically have fewer polyphenols than red wines. The total amount of polyphenols in white wine is measured in terms of the hundreds of milligrams of GAE.L -1 (gallic acid equivalents) (gallic acid equivalents). 66. The total content of red wine’s polyphenols is measured in hundreds of milligrams GAE.L -1. According to studies 44], the polyphenols in red wine reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and also have positive effects on human organs in particular.
The most prominent polyphenols present in red wine are resveratrol catechins, anthocyanins, as well as tannins (proanthocyanidins as well as ellagitannins) (proanthocyanidins and ellagitannins) 77. Resveratrol is a biological substance that plays a significant role in cardiovascular disease and is found in a limited amount of food items, including wines and red wine. Its cardioprotective benefits include enhancing the function of endothelial cells and glucose metabolism, as well as reducing inflammation, as well as managing blood cholesterol. Other wine polyphenols form an integral component of these actions and are a major contributor to the positive effects of wine 55.
The goal of this overview is to provide a summary of the different wine components as well as their antioxidant properties. Important polyphenols, their health benefits when it comes to cardiovascular health, and their effect on specific organs.
- Red Wine and Its Antioxidants
The antioxidants in a variety of red, purple, and fruits (grapes from red wines, Aronia, etc.) are categorized as polyphenols that have individual components. The effectiveness of the polyphenols found in berries to reduce the risk of heart disease is being studied by Kim and colleagues. . The study demonstrated the positive effects of polyphenols on the heart’s function, reducing arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases as well and heart attack, as well as decreased the risk of diabetes and hypertension. Schini-Kerth et al. Schini-Kerth and colleagues 9 studied the beneficial effects of a regular intake of food and beverages that are high in polyphenols, like tea, red wine, chocolate, and other vegetables, on the endothelial cells. Qureshi et al. Qureshi and colleagues 10 conducted a study of the foods and beverages that boost antioxidant intake in a population of women between 50 and 69 years. Women who have an increased intake of antioxidants (major factors included tea, coffee, blueberries, red wine, walnuts, oranges and broccoli, cinnamon, and) were less at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases such as heart arrhythmias, hypertension, diabetes, heart arrhythmias. Women who drink a lot of consumption of red wine were identified to have the highest risk.
One of the most important and extensively studied polyphenols found in wine is resveratrol. Resveratrol, lipophilic 3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene, found in grapes and red wines, exhibits a variety of pharmacological properties. Resveratrol’s amount varies according to the array, geographic area, harvest time maturation, and the health of the grapes 55.
Resveratrol, in a few studies, has demonstrated cardioprotective properties for humans, but Tome Carneiro and co. () Eleven claims that the positive effects of resveratrol are undervalued due to its insignificant concentration in food and its low bioavailability for humans. These theories are both confirmed and refuted by numerous clinical research studies. Furthermore, prolonged consumption of resveratrol can reduce the activity of certain enzymes that may cause harm to human health. 12[ 12.
Montsko et al. Montsko and colleagues 13conducted a study on a wide variety of wines to figure out the type of wine that is the most polyphenol-rich. The highest of the wines that contained the trans-resveratrol are Pinot Noir as well as St. Laurent red wines. In moderate consumption, the daily dose of these two varieties of red wine, which reduced the risk of developing cancer and heart diseases, was 0.3 L in males and approximately 0.2 1 L in women. Pandey and Rizvi [ 14review the benefits of resveratrol’s cardioprotection on myocardial cells to prevent Ischemia. Its function as a sirtuin activator, which cleanses our body, is investigated in relation to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results indicated that resveratrol enhanced the cardioprotective action against damage caused by oxidative.
Because of its significant bioactivities and the acclaim of red wines, resveratrol gained popularity with the general people in the form of food supplements. Chinese research labs examined the role of resveratrol in protecting the function of endothelial cells. The study identified the dose of resveratrol that helps protect blood vessels both in vivo and in vitro. At present, it is being used as a food supplement to aid in diabetic angiopathy prevention 15, 16]., 1616].
Das et al. Das et al. 17 studied the effect of resveratrol on the cellular signaling pathways that involve the protein Kinase C (PKC Alpha) as a possible cause through which resveratrol can affect a variety of diseases. Resveratrol, along with its derivatives, decreased PKC beta activity. This method can be employed to control diseases triggered by protein kinase. The primary purpose of this Mannari et al.  18 study was to examine the cardio- and nephroprotective benefits of resveratrol through modulation of the NO (NO) mechanism. Their analysis revealed that an important major effect of NO is regulation by sirtuin, specifically through sirt1 proteins. Resveratrol is a sirtuin activater. Results showed that tubular cells incubated with resveratrol increased the expression of SIRT1 in comparison to other cells in control.
Ghanim et al. Ghanim et al. 19[ 19 of resveratrol by using the extract of a plant on vascular and heart disease. The participants who consumed resveratrol with an empty stomach showed no difference in the concentrations of LDL (low-density lipoprotein), HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, triglycerides, and leptin in comparison to the group that was not. This study highlighted the importance of having an exact dosage to guarantee a positive impact. If a consistent dosage was not utilized, there was a decrease in antioxidant capacity, and nonspecific reactions with proteins took place. Resveratrol-containing food supplements were discussed in the review of Rahman and colleagues. . There are a variety of positive effects of resveratrol on human health. The most important results included a decrease in cardiovascular diseases (hypertension hypertrophy, hypertrophy, and coronary artery disease, as well as arteriosclerosis) within a subset of people who have regular moderate alcohol consumption. The health of those who drank wine is also much better than that of people who did not drink.
Romain et al. Romain et al. 21studied the effects of wine vine extract (Vineatrol 30) with a high amount of resveratrol on heart and liver systems in hamsters suffering from induced arteriosclerosis. The section enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and prevented the deposition of aortic lipids that protect against heart infarction and heart disease. Mokni et al. Mokni et al. 22 also examined the cardiovascular effects of resveratrol rats. The results showed that resveratrol enhanced the recovery in ventricular function post-ischemic as compared to animals that were not. Resveratrol also improved myocardial lipoperoxidation and myocardial free iron and antioxidant enzymes’ activities.